Fowler’s Toad


Scientific Name: Bufo fowleri
Size: 2 – 3.7” (adult length)
Status: Species of Special Concern and Species of Greatest Conservation Need; This species is overall less abundant than the American Toad, but can be abundant in areas with suitable habitat.
Fowler’s Toad



Can be found in open woodland, sandy prairie, meadows, and beaches. May also occur in suburban or agricultural areas. Prefer sandy soils, especially along shorelines and rivers..

Adult Coloration:

Background color ranges from tan or brown to olive green or gray, and there is often a lighter central stripe down the back. Usually back has several dark spots or blotches. Underside is light in color, and occasionally there are one or more dark spots on chest.

Adult Characteristics:

Similar to the Eastern American Toad, this is a typical toad with warty skin, a stout body, and short hind legs. When present, each spot will contain three or more warts. Males are smaller than females, have enlarged dark thumbs and a grayish throat indicating the vocal sac. Voice: Low-pitched nasal bleat lasting for a short time (usually 2 – 7 seconds) e.g.,

Larvae Characteristics:

Tadpoles are small and black or blackish brown.

Species Confused With:

Very similar to the Eastern American Toad, which has only one or two warts per spot and has larger warts on the bottom of the hind legs. Eastern American toads also show more heavy spotting on the chest area. These species can additionally be distinguished by their call, with the Eastern American Toad having a more musical prolonged trill and Fowler’s Toad with a lower pitched, shorter, more nasal “waa.”


  • Amphibians and Reptiles of the Great Lakes Region by Jim Harding
  • Harding, J.H. and J.A. Holman. 1992. Michigan Frogs, Toads, and Salamanders. MSU Cooperative Extension Service and MSU Museum. Extension Bull. E-2350, 144 pp.
  • Ruthven, A. G., H. B. T. Gaige, et al. 1912. The herpetology of Michigan, by Alexander B. Ruthven. Crystal Thompson and Helen Thompson; Memoranda towards a bibliography of the archaeology of Michigan, by Harlan I. Smith; prepared under the direction of Alexander G. Ruthven. Lansing, Mich., Wynkoop Hallenbeck Crawford, State Printers.
  • Holman, J. A. 2012. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Michigan: A Quaternary and Recent Faunal Adventure. Detroit, Mich., Wayne State University Press.
  • Conant, R., and Collins, J. T. 1998. Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern, Central North America. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Press.